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THE ISSUES

Hate Crime Protection

A hate crime is an act of "harassment, vandalism, and physical assault” that is centrally rooted in hatred and prejudice 

QUICK STATS

  • 72% of bias-motivated crimes in 2013 were transgender women
  • 67% of all bias-motivated crimes transgender women of color
  • 40% of all hate crimes are reported to police
  • Transgender women of color are more vulnerable than any other group within the LGBTQ+ community

Data from the US Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs on anti-LGBT homicides in the last year reveals that “72% of homicide victims were transgender women, and 67% were transgender women of color” 

Data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation indicates that lesbian, gay, bi+, and transgender (LGBT) people are “the most likely targets of hate crimes in America” (Mykhyalyshyn, Park 2016, 1). 

Federal Bureau of Investigation indicates an annual increase in bias-motivated violence against lesbian, gay, bi+, transgender, queer, and gender non-conforming people

Of all hate crimes reported to law enforcement in 2016, “1,076 were based on sexual orientation bias and 124 were based on gender identity” (Dashow 2017, 1).

 

PROTECTIVE LEGISLATION

Matthew Shepherd and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act [18 U.S.C. § 249]

  • Signed into law by President Barack Obama, 2009
  • Designates sexual orientation and gender identity as protected classes against bias-motivated hate crimes

 

REFERENCES:

Dashow, J. (2017). New FBI Data Shows Increased Reported Incidents of Anti-LGBTQ Hate Crimes in 2016. The Human Rights Campaign. 

Mykhyalyshyn, I., & Park, H. (2016). L.G.B.T. People are More Likely to be Targets of Hate Crimes than Any Other Minority Group. New York Times

National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (2013). Hate Violence Against Transgender Communities.

Noelle, M. (2003). The Psychological Effects of Hate-Crime Victimization Based on Sexual Orientation Bias: Ten Case Studies. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global

Noelle, M. (2002). The Ripple Effect of the Matthew Shepard Murder: Impact on the Assumptive Worlds of Members of the Targeted Group. The American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), 27-50.